By Christophe Klimczak MD PhD, Petros Nihoyannopoulos MD FRCP FACC FESC
This ebook deals either skilled cardiologists and trainees alike the chance to spot and handle the commonest pitfalls encountered with echocardiology in regimen medical perform. The booklet covers a sequence of demanding situations starting from technical problems to issues of echocardiographic interpretation with every one part providing a chain of simulations to check the reader's realizing of the matter. The textual content is written in a hugely sensible and didactic sort with a purpose to support the busy health care professional by means of featuring the data in a succinct, 'essentials simply' demeanour. The heavy use of high quality illustrations serves to make sure that the techniques defined are supported via real-life examples and therefore without difficulty acceptable to the scientific setting.Edited by means of a global expert.Abundant use of full-colour permits exact illustration of pictures to find the money for distinctive dialogue of the recommendations involved.Didactic procedure guarantees supply of key info in attainable parts therefore saving time for the busy cardiologist.Includes the main widespread pitfalls linked to various options therefore making sure applicability to a number of scientific settings and kit availability.
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Extra resources for 100 Challenges in Echocardiography
Finally, Hatle’s method is no longer considered valid for native mitral valves. 4) The continuity equation uses the principle of conservation of mass, with the formula: S1 × V1 = S2 × V2 where V1 and V2 are the subaortic and transvalvular stenotic velocities, and S1 and S2 are the aortic and subaortic (outflow) areas, respectively. The equation is based on the equality of the outputs: • • the aortic and mitral outputs in the case of MS the left ventricular outflow chamber output and the aortic orifice output in the case of AS.
They are definite in the presence of an adjacent shadow cone. However, they are nonetheless quite frequently overestimated in echocardiograms. Particular cases Difficulty in appreciating valve mobility in the case of major calcification of the valves It is often difficult to appreciate valve mobility when there is major calcification of the valves, which become hyperechoic and reverberating. Failure to identify subvalvular mitral stenosis This difficulty is due to the fusion and/or retraction of the chordae as well as fibrosis of the papillary muscles responsible for a subvalvular MS.
Monitoring of the valvular stenosis by means of repeated examinations is also improved. 25 is suggestive of a tight AS. Nevertheless, this value is less reliable than the measure of aortic surface area in judging the severity of a stenosis. PITFALLS DUE TO THE HAEMODYNAMIC CONSEQUENCES OF VALVULAR STENOSIS The pitfalls due to the haemodynamic consequences associated with MS (dilatation of the left atrium, interatrial thrombus, pulmonary hypertension) or AS (parietal hypertrophy, left ventricular dysfunction) are discussed on page 25.
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