By Steven Runciman

Sir Steven Runciman's 3 quantity A background of the Crusades, one of many nice classics of English ancient writing, is being reissued. This quantity offers thoroughly with the 1st campaign and the root of the dominion of Jerusalem. As Runciman says in his preface: 'Whether we regard the Crusades because the such a lot large and such a lot romantic of Christian adventures, or because the final of the barbarian invasions, they shape a vital truth in medieval heritage. ahead of their inception the centre of our civilization used to be positioned in Byzantium and within the lands of the Arab caliphate. sooner than they light out the hegemony in civilization had handed to western Europe. Out of this transference glossy historical past was once born.'

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Extra info for A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

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1 A full summary, with references, of Armenian history at this period is given in Grousset, Histoire de l'Armtnie, pp. 531 ff. See below, p. 61. The Caliph Hakim warfare had shown, to penetrate into the heart of Asia Minor. The military authorities would have been foolish to allow such a dangerspot to remain out of their control. Politically the annexation was less wise. The Armenians resented Byzantine rule. Though Byzantine garrisons might man the frontier, within the frontier there was a large and discontented population whose disloyalty was potentially dangerous and who now, no longer anchored by allegiance to a local prince, began to wander about spreading lawlessness within the Empire.

Cit. voL n, pp. to-day govenunent in Moslem lands; nor did the Patriarch of Constantinople have any jurisdiction over his eastern colleagues. It was an expression, sentimental but none the less powerful, of the continuance of the idea that Christendom was one and indivisible, and that the Emperor was the symbol of its unity. 1 The heretic Churches had no such lay protector. They were entirely dependent on the goodwill of the Caliph; and their influence and their prestige suffered accordingly. Moreover their heresies had in origin been largely due to· the desire of the orientals to simplify Christian creeds and practices.

For the frontier see discussions in Honigmann, Die Ostgrenze des byzantinischen Reiches, pp. , also his article 'Shaizar' in the Encyclopaedia of Islam. Shaizar was still administered by the bishop in the Emperor's name up to 1081 (Michael the Syrian, vol. rr, p. 178). 1 A full summary, with references, of Armenian history at this period is given in Grousset, Histoire de l'Armtnie, pp. 531 ff. See below, p. 61. The Caliph Hakim warfare had shown, to penetrate into the heart of Asia Minor. The military authorities would have been foolish to allow such a dangerspot to remain out of their control.

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A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The First Crusade and by Steven Runciman
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