By Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard

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Spent entirely in its defense. 46 To the modem observer, there is an implication that the merchant or "foreign expert" seeks to serve the Moslem world not only from cupidity but by preference; ordinary Mediterranean trade attacked the Christian faith in the sense that it was incompatible with the intentions of the crusade, and with the theory underlying papal policy. Two other decretals date back to the period of the Third Crusade. The first of these deals with cases of conscience arising out of trading with the enemy: it is legitimate to go to Alexandria to redeem feUow citizens from captivity, but not to take more goods from which the Moslems could benefit than are needed for ransom.

22 This gave the war its legality. It was at the end of Innocent III's pontificate and during that of Honorius IIi that the definition of the "Holy Land" was extended to include Egypt; thus the legal concept of holy war and indulgence was stretched to cover what was originally no more than a strategic concept recommended by Richard I of England and actually attempted by the Fifth Crusade. 2 3 At the same time we reach the fullest expression of indulgence, but no more precise definition of holy war.

Aquinas, Summa thealogioe, 2a-2ae, qu. 10, art. 8; qu. 13. art. I; cf. qu. 10, art. 10, and de rationibus fidei in Opera omnia, vol. 27 (Paris, 1872--1888). Cf. also The Chronicle of James I, tr. John Forster (London, 1883), passim. ' Ch. I -- THE LEGAL AND POLITICAL THEORY OF THE CRUSADE 23 specified Jews only. The main difference between the Islamic rules for Christians and Jews under Moslem rule and the Christian rules for Moslems and Jews under Christian rule lay in the original intention. The Islamic law, by introducing a special tax for dhimmis and excluding them from the army, created a barrier between the majority and its dependent minorities, but the Christian rules set out deliberately to isolate "unbelieving" communities from Christian society.

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A History of the Crusades, Vol. VI: The Impact of the by Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard
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