By Kenneth M. Setton, Harry W. Hazard

The six volumes of A background of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the heritage, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval international.

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Additional resources for A History of the Crusades, Vol. III: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries

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Alois Brauner, Die Schlacht beiNikopolis, 1396 (Breslau, 1876), p. 10, identifies him as John Ill, of three contemporaries who held this title. 25. See C. L. Tipton, "The English at Nicopolls," Speculum, XXXVII (1962), 528-540. 26. 'The units of the crusading army have been estimated as follows: French and Burgundians, 10,000; Germans, 6,000; English, 1,000; Hungarians, 60,000; Wallachians, 10,000; with the other 13,000 comprising Bohemian, Polish, Spanish, and Italian volunteers, and mercenaries; A.

This must have taken place in late July or early August 1396. Sigismund suggested the adoption of defensive tactics, which he knew from experience to be more effective in dealing with the Turks. His advice was rejected outright by the western generals, who, according to Froissart, had come "to conquer the whole of Turkey and to march into the empire of Persia, ... " The united armies thus moved south as far as Orsova and crossed the Danube at the Iron Gate. From that point, the real campaign began with several minor successes.

C. Mompherratos, Diplomatic A cttvitlet of Manuel/f. [in Greek] (Athens, 1913); and J. W. Barker, Manuel II Palaeologus (/39/- 1425): A Study in Late Byzantine Statesttumship (New Brunswick, 1969). For Boucicault's expedltions, see especially Livre des faits du Marechal Bouc/caut, ed. J. F. Michaud and B. Poujoulat, inNor~velle collect/on des memoires pour servlr lll'histoire de France, II (Paris, 1836), 205- 232 . , Vll; Athens, 19S3); also the articles in Creek and French by R. Guilland on Constantine XI, such as "Les Appell de Constantin XI Paleologuc a Rome et AVenice," Byzantilloslavica, XIV (19S3), 226- 244 ; see also S.

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A History of the Crusades, Vol. III: The Fourteenth and by Kenneth M. Setton, Harry W. Hazard
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