By Lawrence C. Becker
What may stoic ethics be like this present day if stoicism had survived as a scientific method of moral idea, if it had coped effectively with the demanding situations of contemporary philosophy and experimental technological know-how? a brand new Stoicism proposes a solution to that question, provided from in the stoic culture yet with out the metaphysical and mental assumptions that sleek philosophy and technology have deserted. Lawrence Becker argues secular model of the stoic moral undertaking, according to modern cosmology and developmental psychology, presents the foundation for a classy kind of moral naturalism, within which almost the entire not easy doctrines of the traditional Stoics could be in actual fact restated and defended.
Becker argues, in line with the ancients, that advantage is something, now not many; that it, and never happiness, is the right kind finish of all task; that it on my own is sweet, all different issues being only rank-ordered relative to one another for the sake of the nice; and that advantage is enough for happiness. additionally, he rejects the preferred comic strip of the stoic as a grave determine, emotionally indifferent and able normally of patience, resignation, and dealing with discomfort. on the contrary, he holds that whereas stoic sages may be able to undergo the extremes of human discomfort, they don't have to sacrifice pleasure to have that skill, and he seeks to show our realization from the popular, healing a part of stoic ethical education to a reconsideration of its theoretical foundations.
"From the start to the top of this compact yet lucid ebook, Becker skillfully brings to existence either the arguments and the intuitive attraction of stoicism.... In its necessities [the new stoicism] is recognizable, with its really astringent rational allure improved by way of Becker's concentrated and self-disciplined argumentation. Zeno, i believe, will be pleased."
-Brad Inwood, Apeiron
"A stimulating dialogue of ethics that's freed from the jejune or overly technical attitudes attribute of a lot present writing at the subject."
-Joseph Shea, n.b.: new from The Reader's Catalog
About the Author
Lawrence C. Becker is William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor within the Humanities and Professor of Philosophy on the university of William and Mary. he's the writer of a number of books, together with Reciprocity and estate Rights: Philosophic Foundations. he's the coeditor, with Charlotte B. Becker, of the Encyclopedia of Ethics.
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Extra info for A New Stoicism
470–399 Plato, c. 430–347 24 3 T H E RU I N S O F D O C T R I N E Diogenes of Sinope (founder of the Cynics), c. 400–325 Aristotle, c. 383–322 Pyrrho of Elis (founder of the Skeptic school), c. 365–270 Epicurus, c. 341–270 *Zeno of Citium (founder of stoicism), c. 335–263 *Cleanthes of Assos, c. 331–232 *Chrysippus of Soli, c. 280–207 *Diogenes of Babylon (Seleucia), c. 240–152 *Antipater of Tarsus, 2d century *Panaetius of Rhodes, c. 185–109 Posidonius of Apamea, 135–55 Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 106–43 IN THE COMMON ERA Seneca the Younger, c.
Instead we use normative operators of requirement, ought, and indifference, and it seems unlikely that an adequate semantic interpretation of them can be given in terms of modal logic. We make use of modal operators as well; we simply do not claim that their semantics may serve for our normative ones. Further discussion of these matters is given in the commentary to this chapter in the Appendix, and (implicitly) throughout Chapter 5. Ought. We use “ought” in the following way: To say that an agent ought to do or be X is to say that her doing (or being) X is advisable (but not necessarily required) in terms of some endeavor that she has.
Here we will treat means/end inferences on a par with those about desires, commitments, appropriateness, and so forth. Such means/end inferences at a given ordinal level take several forms, depending on the possibilities for action. One is what we may call the rule of the best means: If we can identify some course of action or trait X as a practically possible means to achieving one or more of the goals we are pursuing, and it is the best of the practical possibilities, then nothing-elseconsidered, we ought to do X.
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