By Stephen Leeder, Susan Raymond, Henry Greenberg, Hui Liu, Kathy Esson

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HIV/AIDS) in each country. In the case of CVD, we have already demonstrated that without preventive interventions, risk factors and therefore CVD mortality are set to increase in most of the study countries. The numbers below are therefore underestimates. 2 Recall also, as we explained in relation to Table 4, that the calculations we have made for age-specific mortality vary according to the accuracy of published mortality data. Thus when these data are incomplete, our estimates of lost productive life will be low, sometimes considerably so, compared with the real losses and those calculated on the basis of death data adjusted for under-registration and misclassification.

Reported deaths are incomplete for many countries. South African data are about 50% complete, and for Brazil they are about 80% complete. The proportion of deaths coded to ill-defined causes varies across countries from a few percent in the USA to 10% in Russia, 20% in Brazil and Portugal and 40% in South Africa. (Colin Mathers WHO: personal communication). In South Africa Dr. Debbie Bradshaw and colleagues have adjusted data for under-registration and misclassification. This elevates the estimates in Table 4 for males to 327 for men and 253 for women.

And Portugal. D-2 Disability adjusted life years lost A second way of examining the cost of CVD is to estimate Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) lost. g. inability to work, prolonged illness). We have not been able to produce these figures for the five study countries because adequate morbidity data were not available to us. 4 million in China. (26) These numbers placed CVD among the major causes of lost DALYs, although other causes including injury and infectious diseases were more predominant.

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A Race Against Time:the Challenge of Cardiovascular Disease by Stephen Leeder, Susan Raymond, Henry Greenberg, Hui Liu,
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