By Ph.G. Herbst

Giving on events a conversation as regards to this publication, one of many queries raised was once, 'surely, what you suggest are flat hierarchies'. This, i believe, provides a sign of the way tricky it may be to conceive of companies which should not have a hierarchical constitution. a slightly related reaction was once acquired while, within the 1950's, an account was once given to a supervisor of the British Coal Board of an independent composite group of greater than forty miners, who had taken over entire accountability for a three-shift cycle, and divided the source of revenue received between themselves. His remark used to be that this couldn't in all likelihood paintings. the hot mode of labor association which have been developed by way of the miners in different pits within the Durham coal fields was once, on the time, good prior to the present options and philosophy of either administration and the exchange Union. It didn't support issues a great deal that the particular money owed have been awarded in a tutorial and clinical shape (Trist et aI. , 1963; Herbst, 1962). i believe that we felt that each one the backing of systematic study and information research will be had to current the case for modes of association, which deviated from traditional perform. even though, whatever used to be discovered from this event. while first and foremost of the 1960's the Norwegian paintings Democratization venture was once begun, a couple of demonstration websites have been arrange which individuals may possibly examine, and which may functionality as facilities for diffusion.

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Input states are specifiable but procedures are not, or a requisite choice exists There may be a variety of products. (1) - P or ? )- P Procedures and possibly input requirements are not specified. Neither iDitial nor outcome state are specified in operational terms ? )- ? The task is to achieve a more specifiable task structure Task competence range of members One man one specialiud task Each man all tasks Each man has a specialised task together with overlapping competence with other members Overlapping compentence range of members OrgaDizational structure A single specified structure of relationships Can adopt any type of temporary structure depending on recognized task requirements.

NON•H I E il A il C H I C A L ORGA N I Z A T I O N S 33 However, the requirement in this case is that the activities of individual subsets of the group remain directively correlated towards the joint achieve­ ment of a specified aim. The requirement that all members are able to carry out all tasks has as a consequence that the required competence range for the total task will need to be within a feasible range. The size of the group is generally relatively small. However, there are examples of linked sets of autonomous groups which can operate as a unit of up to around forty persons.

Assumption 3. Organ izations are of a un iform type In part the problem here is of mistaking the label for reality. Thus an author­ itarian group may be thought of as one where everything is decided by the leader and a democratic group as one where everything is done and decided together. This becomes a problem chiefly if organization design and imple­ mentation are taken to be the achievement of an ideal system. I would think that this is a problem chiefly for those for whom the real world is that which is given by theories, while that which is given in fact can be eliminated or interpreted to fit the theory or, alternatively can be shaped and made to fit the theory.

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Alternatives to hierarchies by Ph.G. Herbst
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