By Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa D. O'Steen
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Additional resources for Archaeology of the Lower Muskogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836
There is signi¤cant evidence that these Micos or chiefs gained power because of interaction with the bureaucratic political system of European settlers of South Carolina and Georgia. Steven Hahn documents the growth of power of Micos and the formation of the Creek Nation as a result of arti¤cially attributed prestige in the form of European trade goods and titles (2004:70, 124, 170, 259, 262). European colonists wanted to deal with single representatives of the Creek people rather than groups of people because it was more ef¤cient.
These watersheds formed the habitat of the Lower Creek Indians as usually de¤ned. The habitat forms the subject of this book, but the Maskókalkî lived far beyond these watersheds. The central Chattahoochee River was 120 yards wide in 1796 (Foster 2003a:53s).
Knight argued that the confederacy of Creek Indian towns was a historically recent development but that the social Ethnohistoric Context / 17 mechanisms that allowed its development were remnants of chiefdom organization (1994a:386). He does not de¤ne what he means by chiefdom organization but points to cultural commonalities that allowed for interaction between independent towns. He argues that these Creek Indian towns formed larger political organizions “conditionally” (1994a:386). Individuals of mixed European and Indian ancestry used the National Council to collaborate with the European governments to further their own wealth and in®uence (Hahn 2004:170; Saunt 1999:67–89).
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