By Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa D. O'Steen

The first complete archaeological survey of the Muskogee (Maskókî) Creek Indians.
The Muskogee Indians who lived alongside the reduce Chattahoochee and Flint River watersheds had, and proceed to have, a profound impact at the improvement of the southeastern usa, particularly throughout the historical interval (circa 1540–1836). Our wisdom of that tradition is proscribed to what we will be able to research from their descendants and from archaeological and ancient assets.
Combining historic files and archaeological study on all identified reduce Muskogee Creek websites, Thomas Foster has effectively pinpointed city destinations mentioned within the literature and pronounced in modern Creek oral histories. In so doing, this quantity synthesizes the archaeological variety and version in the reduce Creek Indians among 1715 and 1836. The ebook is a learn of archaeological tools since it analyzes the temporal and geographic version inside of a unmarried archaeological section and the biases of that archaeological data. Foster's learn segregates the adaptation among decrease Creek Indian cities via a local and direct historical method. therefore, he's in a position to parent the original modifications among person Creek Indian towns. 
Foster argues that the examine of Creek Indian historical past may be on the point of cities rather than archaeological levels and that there's major continuity among the tradition of the historical interval Indians and the Prehistoric and Protohistoric peoples.

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Additional resources for Archaeology of the Lower Muskogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836

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There is signi¤cant evidence that these Micos or chiefs gained power because of interaction with the bureaucratic political system of European settlers of South Carolina and Georgia. Steven Hahn documents the growth of power of Micos and the formation of the Creek Nation as a result of arti¤cially attributed prestige in the form of European trade goods and titles (2004:70, 124, 170, 259, 262). European colonists wanted to deal with single representatives of the Creek people rather than groups of people because it was more ef¤cient.

These watersheds formed the habitat of the Lower Creek Indians as usually de¤ned. The habitat forms the subject of this book, but the Maskókalkî lived far beyond these watersheds. The central Chattahoochee River was 120 yards wide in 1796 (Foster 2003a:53s).

Knight argued that the confederacy of Creek Indian towns was a historically recent development but that the social Ethnohistoric Context / 17 mechanisms that allowed its development were remnants of chiefdom organization (1994a:386). He does not de¤ne what he means by chiefdom organization but points to cultural commonalities that allowed for interaction between independent towns. He argues that these Creek Indian towns formed larger political organizions “conditionally” (1994a:386). Individuals of mixed European and Indian ancestry used the National Council to collaborate with the European governments to further their own wealth and in®uence (Hahn 2004:170; Saunt 1999:67–89).

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Archaeology of the Lower Muskogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836 by Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa
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